Income Tax Planning: In general, non-U.S. residents are taxed only on U.S. sourced income.  If the income is considered to be effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business (“effectively connected income” or “ECI”) then that income is taxed at graduated rates on a net income basis. If, instead, the income is “fixed, determinable, annual or periodic” (“FDAP”) then it is subject to a flat 30% tax on gross income (or lower if there is an income tax treaty). FDAP income usually consists of interest, dividends, rents and royalties. Interest on U.S. bank deposit is exempt from U.S. tax for non-U.S. residents.

Estate and Gift Tax Planning.

Assets subject to gift and estate tax:  For U.S. residents the tax applies to property and assets situated everywhere in the world.   In contrast, non-U.S. residents are subject to a gift and estate tax only on U.S. real and tangible personal property.

Gift Tax Exclusions: Similar to a U.S. resident, a non-U.S. resident can make a tax-free annual gift up to $14,000, can make unlimited charitable gifts, and can make unlimited gifts on behalf of donees directly to educational or medical institutions.

Gifts to spouse. The amount of gift tax exclusion  depends on the citizenship of the donee spouse. A citizen spouse may receive unlimited gifts of U.S. assets from his spouse.  A non-citizen spouse can only receive $148,000 per year prior to a tax being imposed.

Estate Tax. U.S. citizens and residents have a $5.45MM estate tax exemption from federal taxes.  In contrast, a non-U.S. resident is permitted only a $60,000 exemption. All property situated in the United States and owned at the death of a non-U.S. resident is included in the U.S. taxable estate, including retirement assets and stocks. Some assets, such as bank accounts and life insurance proceeds, are excluded.


Disclaimer: This article only offers general information.  Each situation is unique. It is always helpful to talk to a specialized attorney, to figure out your various options and ramifications of actions.  As every case has subtle differences, please do not use this article for legal advice. Only a signed engagement letter will create an attorney-client relationship. ATTORNEY ADVERTISING